Transfiguration, by Giovanni Gerolamo Savoldo, 16th century
By analogy, biblical accounts of "appearances" of those who have died, are of the same essential nature as a Marian apparition. Angels (i.e., also creatures like men) might also be included in such a survey, but stories of angels are relatively well-known, and for the sake of closer analogy and brevity, I have selected only passages with men or the appearance of men. Several of these passages involve foretelling of the future, in a manner not unlike that of the apparitions at Fatima in 1917. And several actual historical figures are named as appearing after death (Samuel, Onias, Jeremiah, Moses, and Elijah). All passages are RSV.
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Ezekiel 40:3-4 When he brought me there, behold, there was a man, whose appearance was like bronze, with a line of flax and a measuring reed in his hand; and he was standing in the gateway.  And the man said to me, "Son of man, look with your eyes, and hear with your ears, and set your mind upon all that I shall show you, for you were brought here in order that I might show it to you; declare all that you see to the house of Israel."
Daniel 8:15-19 When I, Daniel, had seen the vision, I sought to understand it; and behold, there stood before me one having the appearance of a man.  And I heard a man's voice between the banks of the U'lai, and it called, "Gabriel, make this man understand the vision."  So he came near where I stood; and when he came, I was frightened and fell upon my face. But he said to me, "Understand, O son of man, that the vision is for the time of the end."  As he was speaking to me, I fell into a deep sleep with my face to the ground; but he touched me and set me on my feet.  He said, "Behold, I will make known to you what shall be at the latter end of the indignation; for it pertains to the appointed time of the end."
Daniel 10:4-21 On the twenty-fourth day of the first month, as I was standing on the bank of the great river, that is, the Tigris,  I lifted up my eyes and looked, and behold, a man clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with gold of Uphaz.  His body was like beryl, his face like the appearance of lightning, his eyes like flaming torches, his arms and legs like the gleam of burnished bronze, and the sound of his words like the noise of a multitude.  And I, Daniel, alone saw the vision, for the men who were with me did not see the vision, but a great trembling fell upon them, and they fled to hide themselves.  So I was left alone and saw this great vision, and no strength was left in me; my radiant appearance was fearfully changed, and I retained no strength.  Then I heard the sound of his words; and when I heard the sound of his words, I fell on my face in a deep sleep with my face to the ground.  And behold, a hand touched me and set me trembling on my hands and knees.  And he said to me, "O Daniel, man greatly beloved, give heed to the words that I speak to you, and stand upright, for now I have been sent to you." While he was speaking this word to me, I stood up trembling.  Then he said to me, "Fear not, Daniel, for from the first day that you set your mind to understand and humbled yourself before your God, your words have been heard, and I have come because of your words.  The prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me twenty-one days; but Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me, so I left him there with the prince of the kingdom of Persia  and came to make you understand what is to befall your people in the latter days. For the vision is for days yet to come."  When he had spoken to me according to these words, I turned my face toward the ground and was dumb.  And behold, one in the likeness of the sons of men touched my lips; then I opened my mouth and spoke. I said to him who stood before me, "O my lord, by reason of the vision pains have come upon me, and I retain no strength.  How can my lord's servant talk with my lord? For now no strength remains in me, and no breath is left in me."  Again one having the appearance of a man touched me and strengthened me.  And he said, "O man greatly beloved, fear not, peace be with you; be strong and of good courage." And when he spoke to me, I was strengthened and said, "Let my lord speak, for you have strengthened me."  Then he said, "Do you know why I have come to you? But now I will return to fight against the prince of Persia; and when I am through with him, lo, the prince of Greece will come.  But I will tell you what is inscribed in the book of truth: there is none who contends by my side against these except Michael, your prince."
Sirach 46:19-20 Before the time of his eternal sleep, Samuel called men to witness before the Lord and his anointed: "I have not taken any one's property, not so much as a pair of shoes."And no man accused him.  Even after he had fallen asleep he prophesied and revealed to the king his death, and lifted up his voice out of the earth in prophecy, to blot out the wickedness of the people.
2 Maccabees 5:1-4 About this time Antiochus made his second invasion of Egypt.  And it happened that over all the city, for almost forty days, there appeared golden-clad horsemen charging through the air, in companies fully armed with lances and drawn swords --  troops of horsemen drawn up, attacks and counterattacks made on this side and on that, brandishing of shields, massing of spears, hurling of missiles, the flash of golden trappings, and armor of all sorts.  Therefore all men prayed that the apparition might prove to have been a good omen.
2 Maccabees 10:29-30 When the battle became fierce, there appeared to the enemy from heaven five resplendent men on horses with golden bridles, and they were leading the Jews.  Surrounding Maccabeus and protecting him with their own armor and weapons, they kept him from being wounded. And they showered arrows and thunderbolts upon the enemy, so that, confused and blinded, they were thrown into disorder and cut to pieces.
2 Maccabees 15:11-16 He armed each of them not so much with confidence in shields and spears as with the inspiration of brave words, and he cheered them all by relating a dream, a sort of vision, which was worthy of belief.  What he saw was this: Onias, who had been high priest, a noble and good man, of modest bearing and gentle manner, one who spoke fittingly and had been trained from childhood in all that belongs to excellence, was praying with outstretched hands for the whole body of the Jews.  Then likewise a man appeared, distinguished by his gray hair and dignity, and of marvelous majesty and authority.  And Onias spoke, saying, "This is a man who loves the brethren and prays much for the people and the holy city, Jeremiah, the prophet of God."  Jeremiah stretched out his right hand and gave to Judas a golden sword, and as he gave it he addressed him thus:  "Take this holy sword, a gift from God, with which you will strike down your adversaries."
Matthew 17:1-4 And after six days Jesus took with him Peter and James and John his brother, and led them up a high mountain apart.  And he was transfigured before them, and his face shone like the sun, and his garments became white as light.  And behold, there appeared to them Moses and Eli'jah, talking with him.  And Peter said to Jesus, "Lord, it is well that we are here; if you wish, I will make three booths here, one for you and one for Moses and one for Eli'jah." (cf. Mk 9:4-5)
Matthew 27:51-53 And behold, the curtain of the temple was torn in two, from top to bottom; and the earth shook, and the rocks were split;  the tombs also were opened, and many bodies of the saints who had fallen asleep were raised,  and coming out of the tombs after his resurrection they went into the holy city and appeared to many.
Acts 16:9 And a vision appeared to Paul in the night: a man of Macedo'nia was standing beseeching him and saying, "Come over to Macedo'nia and help us."
Revelation 4:4 Round the throne were twenty-four thrones, and seated on the thrones were twenty-four elders, clad in white garments, with golden crowns upon their heads.(cf. 4:10; 5:5-14; 7:11, 13; 11:16; 14:3; 19:4)
Revelation 6:9-10 When he opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of those who had been slain for the word of God and for the witness they had borne;  they cried out with a loud voice, "O Sovereign Lord, holy and true, how long before thou wilt judge and avenge our blood on those who dwell upon the earth?"(cf. 11:3-13)