The words of my Catholic critic will be in red:
In disputes over words, definitions, and proper uses of words, it is always good to consult the dictionary. A simple use of the words mediate, mediatrix, or mediation does not necessarily imply some sort of equation with 1 Timothy 2:5: "there is one mediator between God and man."
My dictionary defines mediate thusly:
1. to be in an intermediate position or location.In the sense of #1, Mary stands between men and God vis-a-vis the Incarnation. God needed a human being in order for the Incarnation to take place, and so Mary stood in that juncture between God the Father (Spirit) and God the Son (The Incarnate God-Man).
2. to be an intermediary or conciliator between persons or sides.
3. to be the medium for bringing about (a result), conveying (an object), communicating (information), etc.
I don't see that #2 applies so much, but #3 is apt, in that Mary was a vessel for Jesus to come into the world. Likewise, in the sense I explore in my several papers on this topic, Mary could also be a conduit or vessel for the graces won by Christ alone, by His work on the cross and His divine power alone, to be distributed or applied to men. This is what we believe. We see no conflict between that role and Christ's role, because they are fundamentally different.
To use a crude analogy, say that I go to a gas station. I don't produce the gasoline, yet in order for it to be effective in my car, I have to stand there and be a "mediator" between the pump and my gas tank. All the gas flows "through" me as the one connecting the pump with my vehicle. Likewise, we believe that God uses Mary in that fashion, to distribute graces not produced by herself but by God. She isn't the source of the grace anymore than I am the source of the gasoline. This is a biblical notion (generally speaking): Paul and angels are described in similar fashion.
A Protestant dialogue partner stated that union was a more appropriate term to describe the Virgin Birth. Well, what we are discussing is man's relationship to God vis-a-vis the Incarnation and Mary's special role in that. Her "union" was with the Holy Spirit, Who overshadowed her in order to bring about the Virgin Birth.
In other words, it is still a vertical relationship between man and God. And how would that relate to natural conception by a man and woman? The right word to use there is procreation, which means, literally, "to create." We don't think that parents create their children, but their role is crucial. They cooperate with God in a -- so to speak -- "mini-creation," where God creates the soul supernaturally and the parents produce the "raw material" for the body. There is still an element of the supernatural in every conception, just as there was to a much greater extent in the conception of Jesus.
Parents don't "create" in the sense of absolute bringing-into-being, but they play a key and crucial role in the entire process. God involves them. Likewise, mediatrix, as applied to Mary is a similar concept. She doesn't produce the grace she distributes by God's decree, but God chooses to involve her for that purpose.
I also discovered an interesting biblical parallel. The Greek word for mediator in 1 Tim 2:5 is mesites. We find that it is also used at Gal 3:19:
Why then the law? It . . . was ordained by angels through an intermediary.Kittel's Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (abridged; p. 588) states about the word as used in this passage:
. . . the law . . . is given by God in order to lead to faith in Christ. But it is ordained by angels through an intermediary . . . The intermediary is no doubt Moses . . . The law, then, does not come directly from God.So the law had a mediator, and so we find in Scripture that grace also can be passed through a mediator:
Grace to you and peace from him who is and who was and who is to come, and from the seven spirits who are before his throne, and from Jesus . . . (Rev 1:4-5; RSV)In similar fashion again, in Rev 5:8 and 8:3-4, we find that the "four living creatures," the "24 elders," and an "angel" somehow have intercepted and are in possession of "the prayers of the saints." They are interceding for those on earth, and acting as mediators between them and God. Thus, this theme is common in Scripture in many different manifestations.
Eve stands between the human race and sin and the Fall. She is in a sense the "mediatrix" of original sin, though the Bible also teaches that "in Adam, all fell," so that it was in fact all of us in Adam and Eve, not just them screwing it up for everyone else. Conversely, Mary is the go-between of men and God, by saying "yes" to God and His plan of redemption, thus reversing Eve's "no" and refusal to obey and cooperate with God. This applied, in the patristic use, more to Mary's role as the vessel of God for the purpose of the Incarnation, which in turn brought redemption.
Protestants (or Catholics) won't find an explicit indication of Mary Mediatrix in Scripture. We believe that is not strictly necessary, because Scripture itself doesn't teach that every Christian doctrine must be explicit in Scripture. Some can be part of the apostolic deposit and developed in Tradition with the Guidance of the Holy Spirit (which concepts are in Holy Scripture).
The Catholic believes in this on faith. It is not a logically airtight proposition. A Protestant may conclude on various grounds that the Catholic Church is correct on a, b, c, and p (as I did before I converted), but to accept the whole ball of wax requires faith, just as faith is required to become a disciple of Jesus or to believe that the Bible is the infallible, inerrant, and inspired revelation from God. Protestants expect error to be found in Catholicism because they don't believe in an infallible Church. But if a Catholic found a serious error, then he would have to question the system of belief that he has.
My argument (in the paper, A Biblical and Theological Primer on Mary Mediatrix) must not be taken to prove more than it intends to prove. It was basically an exercise in creating what I call a plausibility structure and to show that the notion of Mediatrix is not immediately dismissible as contrary to Scripture in the sense that it blatantly contradicts it.
In no way do I claim that Scripture Alone proves Mary Mediatrix (or Mary's Assumption or Immaculate Conception, for that matter). What I try to do on my website and in books is to show that Catholicism is not unbiblical or anti-biblical and that its doctrines can be harmonized with Scripture, even though they're not always able to be proven from Scripture alone. We deny the truth of sola Scriptura so that is no particular difficulty for us.
The sense in which we regard Mary as a sole or unique mediatrix has to do with her preeminent and singular role in the order of grace. We believe that God has chosen to use her in the distribution of all the graces that were won solely by Christ's infinite merits and work on the cross. She is the only person so honored, just as she is the only Theotokos and Queen of Heaven.
My other examples were lesser analogies, meant to show that mediation per se is not an unbiblical concept, nor contrary to Christ's sole mediation in terms of Who saves us and produces the grace necessary for salvation (Vatican II makes this crystal clear). I viewed those arguments as the clearing away of the usual roadblocks to acceptance of this notion, not as positive proofs (which are not to be had in Scripture itself).
The medieval Catholic theologians used the metaphor of Mary as the "neck" of the Body of Christ, now subsisting in the Church. Jesus is the Head, of course. We are His Body, and Mary serves as the "neck" through which all the grace which Jesus sends us passes. She is a vessel, just as she was in her role as Theotokos, but of course it is an unfathomable honor to be raised to such exalted heights: as high as one can go, being a creature. And that is yet another reason why we venerate (honor), not worship her.
A Catholic woman who goes by the name "Nordskoven" in public forums has (in a response to my paper, A Biblical and Theological Primer on Mary Mediatrix) attacked my orthodoxy and willingness to submit to the magisterium. This is the second time she has done this: once on Steve Ray's Catholic Message Board, and then on Gary Hoge's Catholic Outlook Board. Her words will be in red. The numbers preceding her remarks refer to sections of the aforementioned paper, to which she was responding.
Here are substantial excerpts from Nordskoven's initial blast, on Gary Hoge's board
[Title of Post] Dave, you are trodding on the Magisterium: RE: Mediatrix.
[#3]This makes a great case for Abraham being called "mediator of all grace" especially as Mary recognized him as "father" in her MAGNIFICAT. Christ said those who hear and obey Him are mother and brother to Him. Christ was less than interested in this biology-as-theological-destiny.
[#4]Congratulations. You have fabricated a rationale for women--along with men--to become priests to atone for the Sin of Adam. And you have rewritten the Bible like Luther--just a little. It's called the "Sin of Adam" in the New Testament.
[#5]Excellent. Another rationale for women priests. Mary is now the priestess-mother offering up her Child in sacrifice. Defer to Cardinal Ratzinger's condemnation of Mary Co-redemptrix. Emulate Mary in obedience. "Do whatever He says" . . .
[#8] As Cardinal Ratzinger notes, the meaning poured into this word, "co-redemptrix," is not that posited by Miravalle et alii, and is more on the order of poetic language. It is a scandal to ignore Cardinal Ratzinger's ruling and elevate this to a title. This is the role of the Church, to correct error and give dimensional definitions, not slogans.
[#9] . . . You make a compelling case only for female priests.
[#10] All may mediate God's grace for one another. It is refreshing to see that you didn't reword the Torah and suggest Moses and Miriam atoned for the Jews.
[#11] . . . Don't put words in God's mouth, don't change the Bible to suit your thesis.
[#12] . . . Call all women mediatrixes of all grace, because through woman there is life.
[#13]A sword of sorrow pierced the heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary that the thoughts of all may be revealed. Mary's co-redemption, or even the willing of the sacrifice on Calvary, is absent. The Blessed Virgin assented to God's will, but did not urge, encourage, will, create or further Jesus' consecration of His Body and Blood at His final Passover at which she was not present. Neither did Mary "will" Christ's sacrifice on Calvary except as assenting to God's will along with those many women and the loving apostle who gathered around Christ.
[#14] Christ was explicit that Mary didn't count extra for being His mum. Those who hear and obey are His mother and brothers.
[#15]. . . Christ is the unique Mediator with the Father. Priests mediate Christ to mankind as tangibly as the Blessed Mother . . .
I request that this thesis of yours be presented to Cardinal Ratzinger as leading the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. Send it through your bishop if need be. This bluff to rewrite the Bible, redefine phrases, remove authority from the apostles to vest it in the masses must be called, and is deserving of pastoral oversight of the highest level. Submit.
And here is my response:
I've been through all this before with Nordskoven on Steve Ray's board (she appears unable to comprehend my position on this matter, and so ludicrously accuses me of heterodoxy and lack of submission to the magisterium), but I guess repetition is a hallowed method of learning, so here goes again:
We must distinguish three things in this vexed discussion:
1. The doctrine of Mediatrix (aka Co-Redemptrix) itself.I fully accept #1, as a teaching solidly entrenched in authentic Catholic apostolic Tradition and the ordinary magisterium. Documentation is overwhelming, and this cannot be disputed.
2. The particular words used in describing it.
3. Whether it should be defined ex cathedra, and with what terminology.
I am opposed to #2 (i.e., normative use of the term Co-Redemptrix) and #3, thus I am in full agreement with both Pope John Paul II and Cardinal Ratzinger, and in opposition to Dr. Mark Miravalle. Reasonable people of good will, and equally orthodox Catholics can disagree on this, because that is how the Catholic system works. One can disagree on the timing of a dogmatic definition at the highest levels of Church authority, as I do, and as the Holy Father himself does, without rejecting the teaching itself.
For example, Cardinal Newman took the same analogous position on the definition of papal infallibility in 1870. That doesn't mean that he disagreed with papal infallibility. He was concerned about a definition which went too far (ultramontanism). But the Holy Spirit prevented that from happening in the First Vatican Council, to Newman's great delight. He submitted to the definition after it was proclaimed, as an obedient Catholic, and fully agreed with it. I would do the same with this definition, if it occurred.
Nordskoven's confusion (as far as I can tell), is with the above crucial distinctions. She seems to think that "Co-Redemptrix" is some novel, radical innovation of either the liberals (since she connects it to the push for women priests) or the ultra-conservatives. As for myself, I fall in neither camp, and vigorously oppose both on my website.
I simply agree with the Holy Father and Cardinal Ratzinger. This isn't a debate about "orthodoxy vs. heterodoxy." It is about timing and the mind of the Church, just as with the past proclamations of 1854 (Immaculate Conception), 1870 (papal infallibility) and 1950 (the Bodily Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary).
There is less consensus on this question than on those. It doesn't follow, however, that the doctrines themselves are heretical or out of the mainstream. They are not. If they were, in fact, wild divergences from mainstream Catholic Tradition, they could never have even been considered for ex cathedra definition.
The pope opposes definition because of timing and inopportunism, not because the views are a flaming heresy. He has taught them himself, strongly. For example, on 31 January 1985, in an address at the Marian shrine in Guayaquil, Ecuador, Pope John Paul II said:
Mary goes before us and accompanies us. The silent journey that begins with her Immaculate Conception and passes through the "yes" of Nazareth, which makes her the Mother of God, finds on Calvary a particularly important moment. There also, accepting and assisting at the sacrifice of her son, Mary is the dawn of Redemption; ... Crucified spiritually with her crucified son (cf. Gal. 2:20), she contemplated with heroic love the death of her God, she "lovingly consented to the immolation of this Victim which she herself had brought forth" (Lumen Gentium, 58). ...So John Paul II can hardly think that the term Coredemptrix is some hideous manifestation of heterodoxy and disobedience (to himself?), if he uses it himself. That he used it is merely a practice that has continued from his predecessors in the 20th century.
In fact, at Calvary she united herself with the sacrifice of her Son that led to the foundation of the Church; her maternal heart shared to the very depths the will of Christ "to gather into one all the dispersed children of God" (Jn. 11:52). Having suffered for the Church, Mary deserved to become the Mother of all the disciples of her Son, the Mother of their unity. ...
The Gospels do not tell us of an appearance of the risen Christ to Mary. Nevertheless, as she was in a special way close to the Cross of her Son, she also had to have a privileged experience of his Resurrection. In fact, Mary's role as Coredemptrix did not cease with the glorification of her Son.
For a thorough treatment of the history of this question with regard to 20th-century popes (with many uses of the disputed term, Co-Redemptrix), see the article by Msgr. Arthur Burton Calkins: The Mystery of Mary Coredemptrix in the Papal Magisterium.
Now, how does Cardinal Ratzinger fit into all this? Well, he simply opposes definition of the particular term, Co-redemptrix. I think he is right about that, and I agree (have written as much on my website for several years now). The term is too misunderstood, and not the best one to use. It has been used less and less by popes for this very reason. That doesn't make it heretical, though, rightly-understood.
Here is an Internet article by Stephen Hand, a friend of mine, and webmaster of "Traditional Catholic Reflections," which clarifies this:
Cardinal Ratzinger Does Not Foresee Approval of Mary as “Co-redemptrix”
By Stephen Hand
TCRNews.com, 10/5/02---Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, said he does not think there will be any Church compliance with the request of some Catholics that the Blessed Virgin Mary be named “Co-redemptrix” in the history of salvation. Ratzinger made the comments in an interview with German journalist Peter Seewald which has been published in book form by Ignatius Press entitled God and the World.I agree with Cardinal Ratzinger and the pope as well, so where is the beef? Nordskoven simply doesn't understand my position, nor the intricacies of the varying levels of infallibility within Catholicism. Contrary to her ridiculous charge, I am in full submission to the Church on this matter, and, in fact, pleased with the decision of the Holy Father to not define the fifth Marian dogma.
Ratzinger said, “ I do not think there will be any compliance with this demand, which in the meantime is being supported by several million people, within the foreseeable future. The response of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith is, broadly, that what is signified by this is already better expressed in other titles of Mary, while the formula “Co-redemptrix” departs to too great an extent from the language of Scripture and of the Fathers and therefore gives rise to misunderstandings.
The Cardinal continues: "What is true here? Well, it is true that Christ does not remain outside us or to one side of us, but builds a profound and new community with us. Everything that is his becomes ours, and everything that is ours he has taken upon himself, so that it becomes his: this great exchange is the actual content of redemption, the removal of limitations from our self and its extension into community with God. Because Mary is the prototype of the Church as such and is, so to say, the Church in person, this being “with” is realized in her in exemplary fashion.
"But this “with” must not lead us to forget the “first” of Christ: Everything comes from Him, as the Letter to the Ephesians and the Letter to Colossians, in particular, tell us; Mary, too, is everything that she is through Him.
"The word 'Co-redemptrix,'" Ratzinger went on to say, "would obscure this origin. For matters of faith, continuity of terminology with the language of Scripture and that of the Fathers is itself an essential element; it is improper simply to manipulate language." (God and the World, Ignatius Press, San Francisco, 2000 )
But it appears that Nordskoven is in full denial that the teaching itself (whatever words one chooses to use, to describe it) is an established part of Catholic Mariological Tradition. If she denies that, it is she who is out of the mainstream on this question, not I.
Mediatrix is the term used in Vatican II. It is almost as misunderstood by Protestants as Co-Redemptrix, since it is erroneously thought to clash with the notion of Christ as sole mediator of salvation. So that term also requires lengthy clarification and explanation. Or does Nordskoven wish to trash Mediatrix as well (and Vatican II along with it)?
Uploaded by Dave Armstrong on 30 January 2003.